List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - A review on the structure of the skin
      Omid Zehtabvar Reza Khoshvaght Fakhra  Borgheie
      Skin (also known as the integument) is the largest organ of the body accounting for 12% to 20% (different ratio in various texts) of total body weight. Skin consists of two basic regions, the superficial epidermis and deep dermis. Beneath the dermis is the subcutaneous Full Text
      Skin (also known as the integument) is the largest organ of the body accounting for 12% to 20% (different ratio in various texts) of total body weight. Skin consists of two basic regions, the superficial epidermis and deep dermis. Beneath the dermis is the subcutaneous or hypodermis layer of loose connective tissue. Generally, the main architecture of the skin similar in all mammals, but there are differences between various species. The skin is thickest over the dorsal surface of the body and is thinnest on the ventral surface of the body. The skin could have ridges on its surface or be smooth in some areas. Epidermis consists of Stratum basale, Stratum spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum corneum. Dermis consists of papillary and reticular layers and has a lot of blood and lymphatic vessels also sensitive and neurogenic receptors. Hair is a long, thin and elastic skin derivation that internal envelopment is from epidermis and loose connective tissue of external envelopment derived from dermis. Footpads are changed skin structures in cranial and caudal limbs. There are another structures like horn and hook that derived from skin. Abdominal cavity consists of these layers from inside to outside: skin, superficial fascia, skeletal muscles, deep fascia and serosa. Tunica serosa consists of a mesenchymal layer that forms from one layer of simple squamous epithelial cells and stroma connective tissue. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      2 - Inflammation role in wound management
      Mohsen Vahar Nasim Ghasemi
      The inflammatory phase is the body´s natural response to injury. After initial wounding, the blood vessels contract and a clot is formed. Followed by hemostasis has been achieved, blood vessels then dilated to allow essential cells, antibodies, white blood cells, growth Full Text
      The inflammatory phase is the body´s natural response to injury. After initial wounding, the blood vessels contract and a clot is formed. Followed by hemostasis has been achieved, blood vessels then dilated to allow essential cells, antibodies, white blood cells, growth factors, enzymes and nutrients to reach the wound area. Erythema, heat, edema, pain and functional disturbance are the characteristic signs of inflammation that seen at this stage. The duration of the inflammatory phase usually lasts several days. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      3 - The role of contraction and epithelialization in open wound management
      Vahid Shahbazi Nazanin  Samiee
      The two phenomena of wound contraction and reepithelialization which occur as stages of the repair phase in healing of the wound play an important role in closing the damaged site. Contraction is formed by the transformation of the modified fibroblast cells called myofi Full Text
      The two phenomena of wound contraction and reepithelialization which occur as stages of the repair phase in healing of the wound play an important role in closing the damaged site. Contraction is formed by the transformation of the modified fibroblast cells called myofibroblasts, and these cells, through their tensile properties, pierce the wound's environment and cut the edges together, and after contacting the two healthy regions, this process stops. Epithelialization also covers the damaged area by migrating epithelial cells at the wound surface. These cells, by secretion of the enzymes, open their path of movement on the wound surface and, after reaching the same cells, stop and thus the location of the ulcer is covered and problems such as fluid loss and the entry of microbial objects to the body will be disappeared. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      4 - Pathophysiology of wound healing
      Hossein Gholami Behran Zamani Rad Saeed Farzad-Mohajeri
      Wound healing is an important concern in clinical medicine. Wound healing including skin wounds is a dynamic complicated procedure which involves many different molecular and cellular agents that occur after a tissue lesion in order to repair the injured tissue. Poor wo Full Text
      Wound healing is an important concern in clinical medicine. Wound healing including skin wounds is a dynamic complicated procedure which involves many different molecular and cellular agents that occur after a tissue lesion in order to repair the injured tissue. Poor wound healing after trauma, surgery, or chronic disease such as diabetes affects human and animal life. Well understanding this process is necessary for developing therapeutic strategies and wound management to help treatment of normal healing procedure. The repair of wounded skin is included hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and maturation and remodeling. These steps have considerable overlaps with each other. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      5 - Diabetes Mellitus: laboratory findings and diagnosis in dogs and cats
      Diabetes mellitus is a persistent hyperglycemia caused by a deficiency of insulin production or an interference with the action of insulin in target tissues. Although diabetes mellitus has been reported in virtually all animals it is most frequently found in dogs and Full Text
      Diabetes mellitus is a persistent hyperglycemia caused by a deficiency of insulin production or an interference with the action of insulin in target tissues. Although diabetes mellitus has been reported in virtually all animals it is most frequently found in dogs and cats. Estimate of the incidence of diabetes is 0.3%-0.6% for dogs and 0.43%-1.2% for cats. The disease in dogs occurs most frequently in the mature or older female, while male cats appear to be more commonly affected than females. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss are the main clinical signs observed in diabetic patients. Sever complications such as ketoacidosis and hyperosmolality might be occurred in some cases resulting in lethargy, reduced water intake and vomiting. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus should be considered based on related clinical signs, persistent hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Repeating measurements of blood glucose level is necessary for diabetes mellitus diagnosis. However, hyperglycemia along with glycosuria and ketonemia in one sampling could also be diagnostic for the disease. Other laboratory tests including blood fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance tests can also be helpful in rule in or rule out of the disease. At the beginning of diabetes mellitus treatment, stablishing a serial glucose curve might be beneficial for finding the best dosage of insulin therapy. Blood and urine glucose, blood fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin are effective indices for evaluating successful insulin therapy. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      6 - Adrenal glands: diseases and laboratory diagnostic methods in small animals
      The adrenal glands are important organs in the body of small animals, which disruptions associated with their performance due to lack of timely detection in most cases, result in irreparable damage or death of the animal. The tissue structure of these glands is unique Full Text
      The adrenal glands are important organs in the body of small animals, which disruptions associated with their performance due to lack of timely detection in most cases, result in irreparable damage or death of the animal. The tissue structure of these glands is unique and the cortical and internal parts of these glands are responsible for secreting important hormones in the animal's body. In general, important functional diseases among adrenal gland diseases in small animals can be classified into two categories. The first category is the diseases caused by excessive proliferation and excessive growth of the adrenal gland, called hyperadrenocorticism, or cushing's syndrome/disease, and other diseases caused by low activity of adrenal glands that are known as Hypoadrenocorticism or Addison's syndrome/disease. Hyperadrenocorticism is primarily a disease of old dogs and ferrets, but it also occurs rarely in cats. Polyuria and polydipsia, lethargy, pot-belly and alopecia, are among the most frequent clinical signs. A stress leukogram (leukocytosis, mature neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, and monocytosis), increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and urine specific gravity <1.020 are good indicators of suspicion to Cushing’s disease. Increased urine cortisol: creatinine ratio (UCCR) in a dog that has classical signs and lab data of Cushing’s is very suggestive of hyperadrenocorticism. If the history, clinical signs, and routine laboratory data are suggestive for hyperadrenocorticism then the diagnosis at this stage is a two-step process: first rule in or rule out hyperadrenocorticism with screening tests [Low Dose Dexamethasome Suppression Test (LDDST) and ACTH stimulation test] and then try to differentiate pituitary and adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism with confirmatory tests [blood ACTH concentration and High Dose Dexamethasome Suppression Test (HDDST)]. Addison’s disease usually occurs in young to middle aged (3–6 years) dogs. Lethargy, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, bradycardia, microcardia, decreased blood pressure, polyuria and polydipsia are the most constant clinical signs of the disease. Laboratory findings including azotemia, decreased urine specific gravity, absence of a stress leukogram and especially a Na: K ratio <23:1 are the key abnormalities to indicate primary hypoadrenocortisim. In such cases, blood cortisol concentration and ACTH stimulation test could be used for diagnosis of Addison’s disease. To differentiate pituitary and adrenal dependent hypoadrenocorticism, the concentration of blood ACTH should be measured. Manuscript Document