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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Recent Advanced in Minimally Invasive Surgery; A Review on New Procedures and Instruments
      Mahdieh Katebian Mir Sepehr Pedram Mohammad Yasan Bangash mahbobeh abdi
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Minimally invasive surgeries are one of the most important revolutions in the history of surgery. recently, different methods of this type of surgery are widely used in medicine and veterinary medicine. With recent advances in minimally invasive surgery, a variety of su Full Text
      Minimally invasive surgeries are one of the most important revolutions in the history of surgery. recently, different methods of this type of surgery are widely used in medicine and veterinary medicine. With recent advances in minimally invasive surgery, a variety of surgical methods have been introduced. Laparoscopic gallbladder resection is the most common type of minimally invasive surgery and many other surgeries have been introduced in the same way. This article introduces new methods in minimally invasive surgery. The further use of this type of surgery depends entirely on the development of new technologies in this field. The success of surgical procedures in the treatment of diseases is always measured by the amount of pain and trauma that the surgical method inflicts on the patient. Reducing these two factors has led to the progression and change surgical methods with minimal invasions in general and laparoscopic surgeries particularly in the last century. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Arthroscopy in small animals
      Samaneh Ghasemi
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Application of minimally invasive surgeries are increasing in veterinary medicine. Joint disorders are among the most important cause for lameness in small animals, especially dogs. Arthroscopy is one of the techniques for diagnosing, treating and managing of joint inju Full Text
      Application of minimally invasive surgeries are increasing in veterinary medicine. Joint disorders are among the most important cause for lameness in small animals, especially dogs. Arthroscopy is one of the techniques for diagnosing, treating and managing of joint injuries. Arthroscopy has advantages over arthrotomy. Arthroscopic surgery is used for management of different injuries in shoulder (glenohumeral), coxofemoral (hip), elbow, carpal and tarsal joints in small animals. Arthroscopy provides the best access to intra-articular structures. Also, post-operative cares, recovery, pain and infection are less than arthrotomy. The goal of this article is to review the uses of arthroscopy in small animals. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Introduce of a Simple and Minimally Invasive Approach for Access to Epidural Space
      Asma Asadian Mohammad mehdi Dehghan Majid Masudifard َAthena Salimi
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Background: Although various researches have been conducted to improve therapeutic strategies in resolving spinal cord injuries, robust clinical treatment is not yet available. Developing a standard animal model is essential before treatment. Objectives: The present st Full Text
      Background: Although various researches have been conducted to improve therapeutic strategies in resolving spinal cord injuries, robust clinical treatment is not yet available. Developing a standard animal model is essential before treatment. Objectives: The present study was performed to introduce a simple, applicable, and minimally invasive approach for access to epidural space in cat. Methods: We used per-cutaneous approach from lumbosacral junction for stainless steel cannula insertion to the epidural space. CT-scan, conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, tractography, and behavioral evaluation were used to assess the correct position of cannula and neurological condition of the patient. Results: MRI results showed no significant change in signal intensity index of neural structures under lumbosacral junction. These observations were further supported by tractography, and also behavioral examination during study. Conclusions: We found that per-cutaneous approach from lumbosacral junction is a simple and applicable approach which has no side effects and artifact formation in MRI evaluation. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Induction of septic peritonitis with laparoscopic assisted cecal ligation and cauterization (CLC) in rabbit
      Mahdieh Katebian Mir Sepehr Pedram Majid Masudifard mehdi nasiri
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Sepsis is a complex and dynamic syndrome and it is a medical and economic challenge. To learn more about pathophysiology of this syndrome, animal models have been introduced. Poly microbial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture is the gold standard model of this Full Text
      Sepsis is a complex and dynamic syndrome and it is a medical and economic challenge. To learn more about pathophysiology of this syndrome, animal models have been introduced. Poly microbial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture is the gold standard model of this condition. The purpose of this study was introducing a new method of septic peritonitis with laparoscopic assisted cecal ligation and cauterization (CLC) in rabbit model. This study included two groups of adult male New Zealand white rabbits: Control group (4rabbits): exploratory laparoscopy was performed and the cecum was grasped from the distal of ileocecal valve using an atraumatic forceps and pulled out from the trocar entry site. CLC group (4 rabbits): the cecum was ligated and two sites of cecum were cauterized from antimesenteric to mesenteric surface of cecum. Before and during 24 hours after the operation, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiratory rate of rabbits were monitored. Ultrasonography, CBC, peritoneal fluid analysis and bacterial culture was checked 24 hours after the surgery. Statistical analysis of the data in CLC group rabbits showed a significant increase in heart rate 6 and 18 hours after surgery (tachycardia) and increase in respiratory rate from 6 to 24 hours after surgery (tachypnea). In addition, a significant decrease in glucose of serum was observed. Bacterial culture was positive and peritoneal analysis of all rabbits in CLC group indicated the presence of bacteria and infection. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Evaluation of effects of different cannulas and the initial incision size, on skin and underlying tissues in laparoscopic procedures in dog model.
      Mahdieh Katebian Mohamad Hejazi roja ebrahimi jalal rezaie hossein marjanmehr hossein asheq farnaz mahmoodzadegan hesam adin akbarein
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Objective- While many of studies have evaluated effects of trocar on incision characteristics non has taken the design of the cannula into consideration. This study was conducted to figure out the type of cannula design which is associated with a better healing at the i Full Text
      Objective- While many of studies have evaluated effects of trocar on incision characteristics non has taken the design of the cannula into consideration. This study was conducted to figure out the type of cannula design which is associated with a better healing at the insertion site, and to investigate if the size of incision in the port site has an effect on the healing process. Procedure-6 trocars were inserted in each dog. five animals were used, allowing the total number of 10 insertions for 7 mm incisions and threaded cannula (group A), 10 insertions for 10 mm incision and threaded cannula (group B) and 10 for 10 mm incision and smooth cannula (Group C), which constituted 3 groups of study. Results-Macroscopic and Histopathology comparison between group A and group B revealed significantly higher degenerative changes and necrosis in the dermal and muscle layer and a higher loss of the peritoneal lining in group A than B. Hemorrhage in the dermal layer of the skin and acute inflammatory reaction was significantly higher in group B compared with C . Conclusions - This study showed that a smaller incision than the trocar’s external diameter has destructive effects on the tissues. Moreover, using a trocar with a threaded cannula can have harmful effects on the surrounding tissues and it is considered more destructive than a smooth cannula. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs: a comparison of the Ligasure, Ultrasound, Bipolar, and Ligature methods
      Mohammad Yasan Bangash Mir Sepehr Pedram Sanaz Banifazl Mohammad Molazem Maryam Iran Manesh Fariba Khaki Yazdan Aryazand
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Introduction: Laparoscopic ovariectomy is one of the common procedures performed in adult female dogs. The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of laparoscopic ovariectomy with four hemostasis methods including Ligasure(LS) Full Text
      Introduction: Laparoscopic ovariectomy is one of the common procedures performed in adult female dogs. The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of laparoscopic ovariectomy with four hemostasis methods including Ligasure(LS), Ultrasound scalpel(US), Bipolar(BP) electrosurgery, and ligature(LT). Materials and Methods: 9 adult mix breed female dogs divided into four groups (LS, US, and LT(n=2); BP (n=3)). Total operation time(TT), Total hemostasis time(HT), presence of hemorrhage was recorded during surgery. In the 7th day objects euthanized to investigate abdominal cavity for gross pathologic changes such as presence of adhesion, and histopathological changes due to thermal damage in organs adjacent to anatomic region of ovaries such as uterine horns. Results: Both TT and HT significantly reduced in LS and US groups in comparison with BP group (P<0.05). TT and HT in LT group were significantly more than BP group. Minimum adhesion score were detected in LS and US groups (no significant difference) which were significantly lesser than BP group (P<0.05). In LT group granuloma around suture material were detected. Thermal damage on uterine horn were significantly higher in BP and LS groups (no significant difference) than US and LT(with no thermal injury) groups (p<0.05). Discussion and Conclusion: Application of easy, fast, safe method of hemostasis with minimal thermal damage and postoperative complications is mandatory in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Use of Ultrasonic scalpel in comparision with other methods was fast, and the most applicable with minimum thermal injury and postoperative complications in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Isolation and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella and Staphylococcus Isolated from Dog and Cat Diets
      Ebrahim  Janmohammadi Firooz Mehdi  Sharifi Soltani Atefeh Bozorgi
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Bacterial contamination and widespread use of antibiotics lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to isolate Salmonella and Staphylococcus from diets used for dog and cat and to determine their antibiotic resistance. 50 samples Full Text
      Bacterial contamination and widespread use of antibiotics lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to isolate Salmonella and Staphylococcus from diets used for dog and cat and to determine their antibiotic resistance. 50 samples of dog and cat dry diets were collected. For isolation of Salmonella, culture in liquid Selenite-F, Bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) and Salmonella Chromogenic agar were used and for the detection of Staphylococcus, Baird-Parker and mannitol-salt agar. Antibiogram testing was performed by disk diffusion method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software, chi-square test and independent t-test (p≤0.05). Salmonella and Staphylococcus infections were 72% and 20% in dog food and 26% and 80% in cat food, respectively. 100% of the dry bulk feed of cats infected with Salmonella and Staphylococcus and 100% of the samples of dry bulk feed of dogs were infected with Salmonella. 100% of Salmonella strains were resistant to all antibiotics. There was a significant relationship between the level of bacterial contamination and the type of diet (p≤0.05). The presence of bacteria along with antibiotic resistance was identified in this study. Hygiene principles and microbial evaluations are necessary to control and prevent food contamination with bacteria. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of the canine osteoarthritis
      niloofar seydi Ali  Ghashghaii
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by a progressive reduction of extracellular matrices in joint cartilage and bone and, eventually, loss of joint function and excessive morbidity. OA has been reported in various animal spesies, such as can Full Text
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by a progressive reduction of extracellular matrices in joint cartilage and bone and, eventually, loss of joint function and excessive morbidity. OA has been reported in various animal spesies, such as canine. During years, various therapeutic measurs have been used for treating the OA. The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of the canine osteoarthritis. PRP is the concentration of platelets derived from the plasma portion of one’s own blood. It can be injected in the site of injury, or it can be made into a platelet-rich fibrin clot (PRFC) to use as a scaffold and source for sustained releasing of growth factors. These growth factors reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which dampens the production of destructive matrix. In veterinary medicine, PRP has most often been reported for tendon/ligament injuries and osteoarthritis. The majority of the veterinary literature reporting on PRP involves its use in equine patients, and evidence in canine patients is few. In summary, PRP appears to be safe and potentially useful in treating a number of orthopedic conditions. In vitro data and clinical results in other species are encouraging Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Lameness, an ongoing threat to dairy farms
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia Amir Nejati
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is review Full Text
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is reviewed in this article. A general look at economic loss cycles, different discomfort and health issues that may caused by lameness are the main topics that were reviewed in this article. Data recording is one of the most important factors that should be considered in any analysis. Current methods of data recording in hoof trimming chute, including paper works and usage of excel sheets and other software were reviewed. General concepts of Farsi language android application for hoof data recording introduced and analysed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - An Introduction to Equine Dentistry; Necessity of Much More Consideration
      Alireza Raayat jahromi
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based Full Text
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based on a scientific plan can lead to an early and definitive diagnosis; which results in a correct intervention and treatment. Dental and oral observation, necessary diagnostic and restraint equipment and instruments, attritional lesions and injuries will be explained and discussed. Finally, the current situation of equine dentistry in our country will be evaluated so that its necessity would be much more seriously considered. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Risk factors for cattle lameness
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on Full Text
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on understanding value of causative agents and risk factors in a condition like lameness and evaluating risk factors in dairy farms. Risk factors were classified into farm building or environment factors (Top roof of the barns and its slop and height, flooring and its drainage, distance to milking parlour, milking parlour collecting area, alleys and foot bathes) Managerial factors (Nutrition and feeding, overstocking, herd composition, days in milk, cow movements in the herd, slurry cleaning and drainage, bedding) environment (Temperature, humidity, raining, wind, altitude, heat stress management) and cow factors (body condition scoring, milk production, concurrent diseases, time budgeting). Each factor was analysed in Iran’s dairy farming situation and applied methods of its management were discussed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Epidemiology of lameness; economic importance, prevalence and incidence
      Marzieh Faezi Reyhaneh Sangtarash
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea Full Text
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea leads to misunderstanding of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Currently, veterinarians must support herd health programs designed to increase production by preventing disease, rather than just dispensing traditional treatment to clinically sick animals. Lameness as one of the costliest disorders in dairy herds, needs special attention. Both preventive costs (such as hoof trimming costs) and the losses due to heifer replacements and milk yield reduction should be counted as the economic losses of a disease. Indeed, local data play an important role in estimating lameness losses. Calculating measures of morbidity is a key point that helps the veterinarian and the farmer to know about the farm condition. So, in this article the economic importance of lameness and the concept of prevalence and incidence of it were reviewed. At the end there are some information about the prevalence and incidence of lameness in Iran and some other countries. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Cow comfort, a basis for lameness control
      Reyhaneh Sangtarash Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Ensiyeh Sajadyan jaghargh
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the da Full Text
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the dairy cow is feeling well, functioning well, and performing natural behavior. Cow behavior and comfort level have a direct relationship with her production and health and cow comfort is one of the most important factors affecting the profitability of dairy farms due to its association with premature slaughter, survival of cows and reproductive life (number of complete lactations before slaughter). In this paper, we explained the concept of comfort in dairy cattle and its risk factors such as stall design, floor type, density, lameness and heat stress. Then the measures of cow comfort are introduced and the management considerations related to cattle comfort are discussed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Metabolic disturbances predispose dairy cows to lameness
      Ali  Ghashghaii Mohamad Riahi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty Full Text
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty liver. Disturbances in macro-minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, micro-minerals, proteins and enzymes often occur days to weeks after parturition. One or the most challenging post-parturient problem, is ruminal acidosis, that it mainly occurs due to changes in ration by using high fermentable carbohydrates to support milk production. All of mentioned disturbances can affect the hoof health and causing lameness in dairy cows. Laminitis is an important sequel of metabolic disturbances and ruminal acidosis in combination with inappropriate housing and management. Lameness can affect cow health and comfort, causing considerable economic losses in dairy industry. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Early diagnosis, an important success factor for treatment and control of lameness in cow
      Mohammad Reza  Aghchelou
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion Full Text
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion scoring, the prevalence of lameness in same dairy herds was on average 8.1%. This matter shows importance of correct lameness diagnosis. The aim of this article is review of practical ways to early diagnosis of lameness in cows. Early diagnosis of lameness in cows is a very important matter because a cow that shows sever lameness have major problems and easily recognizable but a cow with lesser injury have a milder lameness and diagnosis is more difficult. In case of timely detection there is more success in treatment because of less injury. The best time for lameness diagnosis is the cows are monitored when they go to the milking parlor and return. The studies were shown usually farmers identify one of the four lamb cows because they spend a little time for this task, also the gait of cows change on different floors, like wet concrete, although it is difficult to diagnose the sound gait of mild lameness in many cases. In dairy cattle farms in addition to Body Condition Score which is done regularly, Locomotion Scoring is done regularly to allow early diagnosis of lameness. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Locomotion biomechanic and scoring in dairy farms
      Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Marzieh Faezi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 6 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and ex Full Text
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and external factors can affect it. Following herd size growing, farmer’s attention to individual cows has been reduced, therefore lameness diagnostic accrued in sever stages when treatments have the least effect on recovery and prevention. In this article, we try to understand pain basics and behavior changes related to it, using these changes in gait (i.e. back arch, walking speed, track up, head bob etc.) to assess different locomotion scoring systems and their use in dairy farms. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Methods of Determining Age of Ruminants and Camelids by Using Dentition Patterns
      Sare Rezaei Amir Zakian Nima Moradpour
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Determining age is very important in domestic livestock because in addition to health, nutrition and grazing, from point of veterinary science some of the special disease it is age dependent and appear at certain ages. Therefore, knowing the age of domestic livestock fo Full Text
      Determining age is very important in domestic livestock because in addition to health, nutrition and grazing, from point of veterinary science some of the special disease it is age dependent and appear at certain ages. Therefore, knowing the age of domestic livestock for the farmers both in terms of anticipating and preventing diseases and in terms of treatment is important and have a significant effect on exploitation, usage of animals in different services and the cost of farm. One of the methods of determining and judgment of the age in domestic animals is the use of the number, shape and date of tooth eruption. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide practical and useful information for determining the age in ruminants and camelids, as reviewed by peer-reviewed articles and resources in recent years. We hope that this article will be useful to all students of veterinary medicine, active clinicians in large animals field, animal dentistry enthusiasts and other related businesses. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Vital Pulp Therapy an Appropriate Way to Save Tooth Life
      Bahareh Aghamohammadi Azin Tavakoli
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Spring_Summer 2019
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed a Full Text
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed and would be necrotic or infected .In most cases pulpotomy would be the treatment choice for pulp exposures with pulpitis because of the reparative potential of remained tissue and biocompatibility of pulpotomy materials .Therefore development of biocompatible treatments for preservation of pulp vitality and tooth survival is important. Manuscript Document
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    Number of Volumes 8
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    Printed Articles 56
    Number of Authors 127
    Article Views 84853
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    Last Update 6/27/2022