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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Locomotion biomechanic and scoring in dairy farms
        Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Marzieh Faezi
        Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and ex Full Text
        Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and external factors can affect it. Following herd size growing, farmer’s attention to individual cows has been reduced, therefore lameness diagnostic accrued in sever stages when treatments have the least effect on recovery and prevention. In this article, we try to understand pain basics and behavior changes related to it, using these changes in gait (i.e. back arch, walking speed, track up, head bob etc.) to assess different locomotion scoring systems and their use in dairy farms. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Cow comfort, a basis for lameness control
        Reyhaneh Sangtarash Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Ensiyeh Sajadyan jaghargh
        As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the da Full Text
        As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the dairy cow is feeling well, functioning well, and performing natural behavior. Cow behavior and comfort level have a direct relationship with her production and health and cow comfort is one of the most important factors affecting the profitability of dairy farms due to its association with premature slaughter, survival of cows and reproductive life (number of complete lactations before slaughter). In this paper, we explained the concept of comfort in dairy cattle and its risk factors such as stall design, floor type, density, lameness and heat stress. Then the measures of cow comfort are introduced and the management considerations related to cattle comfort are discussed. Manuscript Document