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    • Open Access Manuscript

      1 - Overview of colic risk factors in horses
      Fattah  Iranmanesh Seyed Mahmoud  Shojaeian Amirsaeed  Samimi
      Issue 1 , Volume 7 , SpringSummer 2020
      Gastrointestinal diseases are 50% of the problems and diseases that lead to death in adult horses. According to epidemiological studies, for every 100 horses per year, between 0.9 and 10 horses suffer from colic. The occurrence of colic varies between different farms an Full Text
      Gastrointestinal diseases are 50% of the problems and diseases that lead to death in adult horses. According to epidemiological studies, for every 100 horses per year, between 0.9 and 10 horses suffer from colic. The occurrence of colic varies between different farms and even at different times in one farm. The occurrence of colic seems to be strongly influenced by the level of quality of herd management and horse maintenance throughout the year. This means that variation in the rate of occurrence originates more from management than from the breed of horses. Various factors such as breed, age, sex, history, nutrition, activities, infectious and parasitic problems and dental problems can increase the risk of colic in horses. For example, Arabian horses have been identified as predisposed to colic, and other Heidegger breeds such as the Thoroughbred and Warmblad, and standard-range horses, are at high risk for colic. In addition, stallions, especially castrated stallions, are more susceptible to colic. Changes in the type of concentrate consumed, the type of other feeds, the quality of forage and pasture are closely related to colic and their causative agents. Intestinal parasites, especially tapeworms and streptococci, are important risk factors for colic that can increase the risk Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      2 - An overview of colic in horses
      Hanieh  Fatemi Hesamodin  Torghabeh Alireza  Kavehaski
      Issue 1 , Volume 7 , SpringSummer 2020
      Colic or abdominal pain has long been one of the most important and challenging diseases that veterinarians in equine medicine have always dealt with. In colic, the choice of treatment method between medical and surgical has always been discussed. According to the findi Full Text
      Colic or abdominal pain has long been one of the most important and challenging diseases that veterinarians in equine medicine have always dealt with. In colic, the choice of treatment method between medical and surgical has always been discussed. According to the findings of physical examinations such as pain, cardiovascular system, anal examination and other clinical and laboratory methods, the type of treatment method is selected and if necessary, by using appropriate techniques in cases that require surgery, the patient recovers. Finally, attention to the care required after this period is also one of the effective measures in the treatment of colic in horses. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      3 - Colic, update and advances
       
      Issue 1 , Volume 7 , SpringSummer 2020
      Colic as the most important equine disease requires emergency intervention to save patient’s life. Early diagnosis, management, and, treatment of affected horses will improve prognosis of treatment. Despite performed advances in diagnosis, anesthesia, surgery and postop Full Text
      Colic as the most important equine disease requires emergency intervention to save patient’s life. Early diagnosis, management, and, treatment of affected horses will improve prognosis of treatment. Despite performed advances in diagnosis, anesthesia, surgery and postoperative care, colic is still a challenging concern in veterinary. Some of the most important advancements are presented in this article. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      4 - An overview of the management of mild colic
      Fattah  Iranmanesh Fatemeh  Heydari Ehsanollah Sakhaee Reza Nikzad
      Issue 1 , Volume 7 , SpringSummer 2020
      Colic is one of the most important problems affecting horses and affects 4 to 10% of horses annually. It is noteworthy that 80% of colic cases are either gaseous or of unknown origin that improve without treatment or with a simple treatment. Usually, about 5% of horses Full Text
      Colic is one of the most important problems affecting horses and affects 4 to 10% of horses annually. It is noteworthy that 80% of colic cases are either gaseous or of unknown origin that improve without treatment or with a simple treatment. Usually, about 5% of horses develop mild colon accumulation in a mild form and respond to treatment, and less than 7% of colic cases require surgery. Horses that show mild colic symptoms have a better prognosis for survival, and ultimately in 13% of cases there is a chance of recurrence of symptoms. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      5 - Principles of oral and injectable fluid therapy in equine colic
      Fattah  Iranmanesh Fatemeh  Heydari Ehsanollah Sakhaee
      Issue 1 , Volume 7 , SpringSummer 2020
      Fluid therapy is one of the most important parts of the treatment protocol for horses with colic. Fluid therapy methods include oral and intravenous administration. Although intravenous fluid intake is the most basic form of fluid therapy in horses with colic, prudent u Full Text
      Fluid therapy is one of the most important parts of the treatment protocol for horses with colic. Fluid therapy methods include oral and intravenous administration. Although intravenous fluid intake is the most basic form of fluid therapy in horses with colic, prudent use of oral fluid therapy can be used as an adjunct or alternative treatment. Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Manuscript

      1 - Lameness, an ongoing threat to dairy farms
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia Amir Nejati
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is review Full Text
      Lameness is one of the most important factors causing economic loss in dairy farms. Pain and discomfort following lameness are the main causes of direct and indirect economic losses. Overall situation of dairy farming and dairy products over the world and Iran is reviewed in this article. A general look at economic loss cycles, different discomfort and health issues that may caused by lameness are the main topics that were reviewed in this article. Data recording is one of the most important factors that should be considered in any analysis. Current methods of data recording in hoof trimming chute, including paper works and usage of excel sheets and other software were reviewed. General concepts of Farsi language android application for hoof data recording introduced and analysed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      2 - Epidemiology of lameness; economic importance, prevalence and incidence
      Marzieh Faezi Reyhaneh Sangtarash
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea Full Text
      Herd health and comprehensive preventive medicine were notified since the last half of 20th century, as the farmers were better educated and the value of individual animals relative to veterinary fees has decreased. Restricted attention had been given to the above idea leads to misunderstanding of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Currently, veterinarians must support herd health programs designed to increase production by preventing disease, rather than just dispensing traditional treatment to clinically sick animals. Lameness as one of the costliest disorders in dairy herds, needs special attention. Both preventive costs (such as hoof trimming costs) and the losses due to heifer replacements and milk yield reduction should be counted as the economic losses of a disease. Indeed, local data play an important role in estimating lameness losses. Calculating measures of morbidity is a key point that helps the veterinarian and the farmer to know about the farm condition. So, in this article the economic importance of lameness and the concept of prevalence and incidence of it were reviewed. At the end there are some information about the prevalence and incidence of lameness in Iran and some other countries. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      3 - Risk factors for cattle lameness
      Ahmadreza Mohamadnia
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on Full Text
      Lameness and its consequences are one the most important causes of economic losses in dairy farming. Lameness is a multifactorial condition that can be managed by knowing its risk factors and their importance in specific farms and conditions. Current article focusses on understanding value of causative agents and risk factors in a condition like lameness and evaluating risk factors in dairy farms. Risk factors were classified into farm building or environment factors (Top roof of the barns and its slop and height, flooring and its drainage, distance to milking parlour, milking parlour collecting area, alleys and foot bathes) Managerial factors (Nutrition and feeding, overstocking, herd composition, days in milk, cow movements in the herd, slurry cleaning and drainage, bedding) environment (Temperature, humidity, raining, wind, altitude, heat stress management) and cow factors (body condition scoring, milk production, concurrent diseases, time budgeting). Each factor was analysed in Iran’s dairy farming situation and applied methods of its management were discussed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      4 - Cow comfort, a basis for lameness control
      Reyhaneh Sangtarash Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Ensiyeh Sajadyan jaghargh
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the da Full Text
      As the number of large-scale dairy farms increase dairy cow welfare has become a hot topic in recent years. This growing interest in animal welfare has motivated legislators to set new rules. The most important concerns regarding dairy cow welfare include whether the dairy cow is feeling well, functioning well, and performing natural behavior. Cow behavior and comfort level have a direct relationship with her production and health and cow comfort is one of the most important factors affecting the profitability of dairy farms due to its association with premature slaughter, survival of cows and reproductive life (number of complete lactations before slaughter). In this paper, we explained the concept of comfort in dairy cattle and its risk factors such as stall design, floor type, density, lameness and heat stress. Then the measures of cow comfort are introduced and the management considerations related to cattle comfort are discussed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      5 - Metabolic disturbances predispose dairy cows to lameness
      Ali  Ghashghaii Mohamad Riahi
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty Full Text
      During the recent decades, a considerable increase in milk production has occurred in dairy cows. But it has been accompanied by an unwanted increase in different diseases and disorders such as metabolic disturbances. Negative energy balance can cause ketosis and fatty liver. Disturbances in macro-minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, micro-minerals, proteins and enzymes often occur days to weeks after parturition. One or the most challenging post-parturient problem, is ruminal acidosis, that it mainly occurs due to changes in ration by using high fermentable carbohydrates to support milk production. All of mentioned disturbances can affect the hoof health and causing lameness in dairy cows. Laminitis is an important sequel of metabolic disturbances and ruminal acidosis in combination with inappropriate housing and management. Lameness can affect cow health and comfort, causing considerable economic losses in dairy industry. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      6 - Locomotion biomechanic and scoring in dairy farms
      Shabnaz mokhtarnazif Marzieh Faezi
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and ex Full Text
      Lameness is one of the biggest challenges in modern dairy farm around the world. Lameness is defined as the clinical manifestation of painful disorder resulting in deviation from normal gait or posture. It usually happens following claw lesions, although internal and external factors can affect it. Following herd size growing, farmer’s attention to individual cows has been reduced, therefore lameness diagnostic accrued in sever stages when treatments have the least effect on recovery and prevention. In this article, we try to understand pain basics and behavior changes related to it, using these changes in gait (i.e. back arch, walking speed, track up, head bob etc.) to assess different locomotion scoring systems and their use in dairy farms. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      7 - Early diagnosis, an important success factor for treatment and control of lameness in cow
      Mohammad Reza  Aghchelou
      Issue 2 , Volume 6 , AutumnWinter 2019
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion Full Text
      Lameness is one of the cases of culling of cows; also it causes weight and production loss because of pain and has a lot of therapeutic cost. In a study, the prevalence of lameness was estimated on average 2.2% in dairy herds by farmers. After more objective locomotion scoring, the prevalence of lameness in same dairy herds was on average 8.1%. This matter shows importance of correct lameness diagnosis. The aim of this article is review of practical ways to early diagnosis of lameness in cows. Early diagnosis of lameness in cows is a very important matter because a cow that shows sever lameness have major problems and easily recognizable but a cow with lesser injury have a milder lameness and diagnosis is more difficult. In case of timely detection there is more success in treatment because of less injury. The best time for lameness diagnosis is the cows are monitored when they go to the milking parlor and return. The studies were shown usually farmers identify one of the four lamb cows because they spend a little time for this task, also the gait of cows change on different floors, like wet concrete, although it is difficult to diagnose the sound gait of mild lameness in many cases. In dairy cattle farms in addition to Body Condition Score which is done regularly, Locomotion Scoring is done regularly to allow early diagnosis of lameness. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      8 - An Introduction to Equine Dentistry; Necessity of Much More Consideration
      Alireza Raayat jahromi
      Issue 1 , Volume 6 , SpringSummer 2019
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based Full Text
      Dental problems are one of the main challenges in equine medicine and its management has a considerable effect on horse’s performance and profitability in equine industry. Considering the fact that prevention is better than treatment, a regular dental care program based on a scientific plan can lead to an early and definitive diagnosis; which results in a correct intervention and treatment. Dental and oral observation, necessary diagnostic and restraint equipment and instruments, attritional lesions and injuries will be explained and discussed. Finally, the current situation of equine dentistry in our country will be evaluated so that its necessity would be much more seriously considered. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      9 - Vital Pulp Therapy an Appropriate Way to Save Tooth Life
      Bahareh Aghamohammadi Azin Tavakoli
      Issue 1 , Volume 6 , SpringSummer 2019
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed a Full Text
      Vitality of dentin-pulp complex is essential for teeth health, so it’s the priority in clinical control strategies. Pulp vitality in caries treatment for young individuals or in primary teeth has vital importance .In traumatic injuries to the pulp, pulp may be exposed and would be necrotic or infected .In most cases pulpotomy would be the treatment choice for pulp exposures with pulpitis because of the reparative potential of remained tissue and biocompatibility of pulpotomy materials .Therefore development of biocompatible treatments for preservation of pulp vitality and tooth survival is important. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Manuscript

      10 - A Review of Physiological Structures and Dental Disorders of Canids Using Radiography and Computed Tomography
      Ferdos Fekri Amir Zakian Mohsen  Abbasi Omid Zehtabvar Alireza Vajhi
      Issue 1 , Volume 6 , SpringSummer 2019
      Canids are heterodont and diphyodont animals, which most of adult canids have 42 permanent teeth. Nowadays, attention to the oral and dental disorders in pets has gained a special region in veterinary medicine and on the top of these problems can be referred to dental i Full Text
      Canids are heterodont and diphyodont animals, which most of adult canids have 42 permanent teeth. Nowadays, attention to the oral and dental disorders in pets has gained a special region in veterinary medicine and on the top of these problems can be referred to dental infections and other periodontal diseases. Anatomy and positioning of teeth and periodontal diseases also could be observed by diagnostic imaging techniques included radiography and CT-scan. Radiography is an effective method for dental examination with low-cost and fast execution times and can be performed during surgery. Although, computed tomography is high contrasted method in oral cavity examination that facilitates the diagnosis of multiple disease. Precise and detailed imaging of the region of interest even before changes become clinically apparent, the reduced examination time than oral radiography, 3D imaging in different views, but expensiveness and risks associated with anesthesia may be the restrictive factors. Manuscript Document
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    Ahmadreza Mohamadnia (عضو هیئت علمی)
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    Ahmadreza Mohamadnia (عضو هیئت علمی)
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    Mohamad mehdi Dehghan (عضو هیئت علمی) Ahmadreza Mohamadnia (عضو هیئت علمی) Azin Tavakoli (هضو هیئت علمی) (عضو هیئت علمی) (عضو هیئت علمی) (عضو هیئت علمی)
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    Article Views 5949
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