List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of the canine osteoarthritis
      niloofar seydi Ali  Ghashghaii
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by a progressive reduction of extracellular matrices in joint cartilage and bone and, eventually, loss of joint function and excessive morbidity. OA has been reported in various animal spesies, such as can Full Text
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by a progressive reduction of extracellular matrices in joint cartilage and bone and, eventually, loss of joint function and excessive morbidity. OA has been reported in various animal spesies, such as canine. During years, various therapeutic measurs have been used for treating the OA. The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of the canine osteoarthritis. PRP is the concentration of platelets derived from the plasma portion of one’s own blood. It can be injected in the site of injury, or it can be made into a platelet-rich fibrin clot (PRFC) to use as a scaffold and source for sustained releasing of growth factors. These growth factors reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which dampens the production of destructive matrix. In veterinary medicine, PRP has most often been reported for tendon/ligament injuries and osteoarthritis. The majority of the veterinary literature reporting on PRP involves its use in equine patients, and evidence in canine patients is few. In summary, PRP appears to be safe and potentially useful in treating a number of orthopedic conditions. In vitro data and clinical results in other species are encouraging Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      2 - Anesthetic management differences between small animal and horse
      Nasser Vesal
      Veterinary anesthesia is a relatively new science that uses different drugs and techniques to provide optimal condition (analgesia, immobility, muscle relaxation and amnesia) to perform various medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures in domestic, exotic and wild ani Full Text
      Veterinary anesthesia is a relatively new science that uses different drugs and techniques to provide optimal condition (analgesia, immobility, muscle relaxation and amnesia) to perform various medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures in domestic, exotic and wild animals. In order to perform a safe sedation, analgesia, local and general anesthesia, adequate scientific knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the species are required. The most common species that referred for surgical procedures are small animal (cat and dog) and horses. Although surgical procedure are also performed on ruminants, general anesthesia is not common in these species due to some specific reasons (economic costs, bloat, regurgitation and easily performed standing surgeries in cattle). There are several anatomical, physiological and pharmacological differences as well as difference in body weight and temperament between small animal and horses that should be considered before anesthesia. The present paper discusses the major differences that require appropriate preoperative preparation when conducting anesthesia in small animal and horses. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      3 - Laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs: a comparison of the Ligasure, Ultrasound, Bipolar, and Ligature methods
      Mohammad Yasan Bangash Mir Sepehr Pedram Sanaz Banifazl Mohammad Molazem Maryam Iran Manesh Fariba Khaki Yazdan Aryazand
      Introduction: Laparoscopic ovariectomy is one of the common procedures performed in adult female dogs. The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of laparoscopic ovariectomy with four hemostasis methods including Ligasure(LS) Full Text
      Introduction: Laparoscopic ovariectomy is one of the common procedures performed in adult female dogs. The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of laparoscopic ovariectomy with four hemostasis methods including Ligasure(LS), Ultrasound scalpel(US), Bipolar(BP) electrosurgery, and ligature(LT). Materials and Methods: 9 adult mix breed female dogs divided into four groups (LS, US, and LT(n=2); BP (n=3)). Total operation time(TT), Total hemostasis time(HT), presence of hemorrhage was recorded during surgery. In the 7th day objects euthanized to investigate abdominal cavity for gross pathologic changes such as presence of adhesion, and histopathological changes due to thermal damage in organs adjacent to anatomic region of ovaries such as uterine horns. Results: Both TT and HT significantly reduced in LS and US groups in comparison with BP group (P<0.05). TT and HT in LT group were significantly more than BP group. Minimum adhesion score were detected in LS and US groups (no significant difference) which were significantly lesser than BP group (P<0.05). In LT group granuloma around suture material were detected. Thermal damage on uterine horn were significantly higher in BP and LS groups (no significant difference) than US and LT(with no thermal injury) groups (p<0.05). Discussion and Conclusion: Application of easy, fast, safe method of hemostasis with minimal thermal damage and postoperative complications is mandatory in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Use of Ultrasonic scalpel in comparision with other methods was fast, and the most applicable with minimum thermal injury and postoperative complications in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      4 - Arthroscopy in small animals
      Samaneh Ghasemi
      Application of minimally invasive surgeries are increasing in veterinary medicine. Joint disorders are among the most important cause for lameness in small animals, especially dogs. Arthroscopy is one of the techniques for diagnosing, treating and managing of joint inju Full Text
      Application of minimally invasive surgeries are increasing in veterinary medicine. Joint disorders are among the most important cause for lameness in small animals, especially dogs. Arthroscopy is one of the techniques for diagnosing, treating and managing of joint injuries. Arthroscopy has advantages over arthrotomy. Arthroscopic surgery is used for management of different injuries in shoulder (glenohumeral), coxofemoral (hip), elbow, carpal and tarsal joints in small animals. Arthroscopy provides the best access to intra-articular structures. Also, post-operative cares, recovery, pain and infection are less than arthrotomy. The goal of this article is to review the uses of arthroscopy in small animals. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      5 - Introduce of a Simple and Minimally Invasive Approach for Access to Epidural Space
      Asma Asadian Mohammad mehdi Dehghan Majid Masudifard َAthena Salimi
      Background: Although various researches have been conducted to improve therapeutic strategies in resolving spinal cord injuries, robust clinical treatment is not yet available. Developing a standard animal model is essential before treatment. Objectives: The present st Full Text
      Background: Although various researches have been conducted to improve therapeutic strategies in resolving spinal cord injuries, robust clinical treatment is not yet available. Developing a standard animal model is essential before treatment. Objectives: The present study was performed to introduce a simple, applicable, and minimally invasive approach for access to epidural space in cat. Methods: We used per-cutaneous approach from lumbosacral junction for stainless steel cannula insertion to the epidural space. CT-scan, conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, tractography, and behavioral evaluation were used to assess the correct position of cannula and neurological condition of the patient. Results: MRI results showed no significant change in signal intensity index of neural structures under lumbosacral junction. These observations were further supported by tractography, and also behavioral examination during study. Conclusions: We found that per-cutaneous approach from lumbosacral junction is a simple and applicable approach which has no side effects and artifact formation in MRI evaluation. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      6 - Inflammation and arcing (BOWED TENDON) of the superficial flexor tendon (SDF)
      Saeed Azizi Mahmoodjigh Nima Mozafari Farshid Davoudi
      Among the flexor tendons in the horse's limbs, the superficial digital flexor tendon is more prone to damage than the deep digital flexor tendon. SDF tendonitis is a common injury in event horses. Recovery of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries is slow, bu Full Text
      Among the flexor tendons in the horse's limbs, the superficial digital flexor tendon is more prone to damage than the deep digital flexor tendon. SDF tendonitis is a common injury in event horses. Recovery of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries is slow, but re-injury is likely. SDF tendon injuries are more common in the forelimb. Flexor tendon injuries are due to strain on the tendon or a direct trauma. Tendon damage vary from inflammation and pain to complete rupture of the tendon. Injuries caused by strain are associated with swelling that require ultrasound assessment to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for these injuries includes anti-inflammatory treatment, which is initially followed by a rehabilitation program. In cases where drug treatment is not responsive, surgical procedures including tendon splitting and superior check ligament desmotomy can be used. In this study, we briefly review the tendonitis of the superficial digital flexor tendon, etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      7 - Horse limb ligaments, injuries and its treatment
      Rahim Mohammadi Farshid Davoodi
      Disorders and problems of the ligaments of the motor limbs of horse are among the things that severely affect the performance of the horse and cause lameness. Early diagnosis, management and treatment measures will improve the prognosis of treatment. Damage to the ligam Full Text
      Disorders and problems of the ligaments of the motor limbs of horse are among the things that severely affect the performance of the horse and cause lameness. Early diagnosis, management and treatment measures will improve the prognosis of treatment. Damage to the ligaments of the suspensory apparatus, which includes the suspensory ligament and distal sesamoidean ligaments, is one of the most important ligament injuries of the fore and hind limbs. Despite advances in horse care, ligament injuries continue to occur. In this paper, we review the types of ligament problems in the limbs, etiology, clinical signs, examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      8 - A review of the most common tendon sheath injuries in horses
      Rahim Mohammadi Nima Mozafari
      Tendon sheath is a connective tissue that main function is to protect the tendon in the areas that are most vulnerable to damage. One of the relatively common causes of lameness and abnormalities in the limb of horses is tendon sheath damage. Injuries to the digital ten Full Text
      Tendon sheath is a connective tissue that main function is to protect the tendon in the areas that are most vulnerable to damage. One of the relatively common causes of lameness and abnormalities in the limb of horses is tendon sheath damage. Injuries to the digital tendon sheath, tarsus, and carp are more common than tendon sheaths in other parts of the limbs. Lameness and swelling at the site of the lesion are common clinical findings in many tendon sheath injuries. Primary diagnosis of tendon sheath inflammation is possible with the help of animal history and clinical signs. The use of diagnostic tools, especially diagnostic imaging, is very useful for definitive diagnosis and identifying the primary cause of the disorders or damage to the surrounding tissues. Complete treatment should be done after identifying the underlying cause of sheath inflammation, although treatments such as rest, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, and cold therapy are effective in reducing inflammation and improving clinical signs. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      9 - Nanoparticles for Tendon Healing and Regeneration
      sara javanmardi Dara Azizi
      Tendon tissue has limited regeneration potential and usually the consequent formation of scar tissue causes inferior mechanical properties. Nanoparticles could be used in different way to improve tendon healing and regeneration, ranging from scaffolds manufacturing (inc Full Text
      Tendon tissue has limited regeneration potential and usually the consequent formation of scar tissue causes inferior mechanical properties. Nanoparticles could be used in different way to improve tendon healing and regeneration, ranging from scaffolds manufacturing (increasing the strength and endurance or anti-adhesions, anti-microbial, and ante inflammatory properties) to gene therapy. This paper aims to summarize the most relevant studies showing the potential application of nanoparticles for tendon tissue regeneration. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      10 - Tendon, tendon disorders and Cell therapy in tendon
      Mehdi Behfar Mohammad Hossein Farjah
      The tendon is a firm fibrous band of connective tissue that connects muscle to bone. This structure has the ability to transfer mechanical forces resulting from muscle contraction to the skeletal system. Tendinitis is a general term, often used to describe painful tendo Full Text
      The tendon is a firm fibrous band of connective tissue that connects muscle to bone. This structure has the ability to transfer mechanical forces resulting from muscle contraction to the skeletal system. Tendinitis is a general term, often used to describe painful tendon situations due to constant stretching, overuse, degeneration, or poor tendon biomechanism. Tendinopathy is often the result of useless attempts by the body to regenerate a tendon, which a pathological conflict has led to a malfunction. Various treatments have been used to manage tendon disorders. Stem cells are divided into two categories. Embryonic cells (which are very potential but due to ethical considerations, limited studies have been done on them) and postnatal cells. Postnatal cells are divided into two categories, which include; Hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cells, including tenocytes, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts. these cells are a potential alternative to treating tendon lesions. This article presentan overview of the structure, biomechanics and disorders of tendon and, while pointing to the common therapies today, introduces stem cells , retrospective studies and possibility of using these cells in the optimal treatment of tendon disorders. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      11 - Induction of septic peritonitis with laparoscopic assisted cecal ligation and cauterization (CLC) in rabbit
      Mahdieh Katebian Mir Sepehr Pedram Majid Masudifard mehdi nasiri
      Sepsis is a complex and dynamic syndrome and it is a medical and economic challenge. To learn more about pathophysiology of this syndrome, animal models have been introduced. Poly microbial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture is the gold standard model of this Full Text
      Sepsis is a complex and dynamic syndrome and it is a medical and economic challenge. To learn more about pathophysiology of this syndrome, animal models have been introduced. Poly microbial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture is the gold standard model of this condition. The purpose of this study was introducing a new method of septic peritonitis with laparoscopic assisted cecal ligation and cauterization (CLC) in rabbit model. This study included two groups of adult male New Zealand white rabbits: Control group (4rabbits): exploratory laparoscopy was performed and the cecum was grasped from the distal of ileocecal valve using an atraumatic forceps and pulled out from the trocar entry site. CLC group (4 rabbits): the cecum was ligated and two sites of cecum were cauterized from antimesenteric to mesenteric surface of cecum. Before and during 24 hours after the operation, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiratory rate of rabbits were monitored. Ultrasonography, CBC, peritoneal fluid analysis and bacterial culture was checked 24 hours after the surgery. Statistical analysis of the data in CLC group rabbits showed a significant increase in heart rate 6 and 18 hours after surgery (tachycardia) and increase in respiratory rate from 6 to 24 hours after surgery (tachypnea). In addition, a significant decrease in glucose of serum was observed. Bacterial culture was positive and peritoneal analysis of all rabbits in CLC group indicated the presence of bacteria and infection. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      12 - A fresh look at the latest treatment methods of complementary and regenerative medicine in sports horse injuries
      Amir Zakian Farshid Davoodi
      Nowadays, due to compression of sports competitions and the occurrence of more injuries, the role of sports medicine in minimizing the recovery and returning the animal to its previous performance with maximum power is more prominent than before. Various remedies are em Full Text
      Nowadays, due to compression of sports competitions and the occurrence of more injuries, the role of sports medicine in minimizing the recovery and returning the animal to its previous performance with maximum power is more prominent than before. Various remedies are employed for these cases, but they are not accepted by all physician and veterinarian around the world. Complementary or alternative medicine should be considered as a type of treatment that is not in the medical world today or is not even registered, but some individuals and communities refer to it as the best treatment and define professional branches and sub-categories for it. But another unusual branch for treating diseases is regenerative or reconstructive medicine. In recent years, advances in cell biology, genetic immunology, and other fields have enabled regenerative medicine to fundamentally change health care. One of the duties of governmental and international organizations working in the field of health and treatment is to provide proper information and appropriate awareness of all fields of complementary and regenerative medicine for therapists and horse owners so that each person, after reviewing and consulting, can use these branches of medicine according to their needs and problems. Recently, significant progress has been made in the field of these two branches of unconventional medicine in European countries and North America Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      13 - An overview of avian tendon and ligament problems
      Nikta  Moqadasi Abbas Raisi Hassan Norouzian
      Tendon is a mechanical bridge that transmits muscle strength to the bones and joints. Musculoskeletal disorders damages millions of dollars in economic losses each year to companies in the animal husbandry industry that inflict food. The tendon is mainly composed of ten Full Text
      Tendon is a mechanical bridge that transmits muscle strength to the bones and joints. Musculoskeletal disorders damages millions of dollars in economic losses each year to companies in the animal husbandry industry that inflict food. The tendon is mainly composed of tenocyte and tenoblast cells and is oriented and organized by collagen fibers. Viral arthritis / tenosynovitis in poultry is one of the pathological manifestations of avian reovirus infection. Viral arthritis can be diagnosed by clinical observations and serological examination and radiological findings. Studies show the effect of vaccines on the prevention of this disease. Tendon mineralization in poultry can be a part of the natural process or can be caused by aging or tendon damage. Mineral deposition in tendons makes it a hard structure with less flexibility. The morphological properties of tissue and mineralized tendon cells have been studied. Several studies on the effects of activity on avian Gastrocnemius tendon have been performed. One of the tendon injuries is related to the patagial tendon, which responds well to treatment after surgery. The tendon plays a vital role in function of birds and is damaged, which causes irreparable problems. Therefore, it is necessary to know its structure and precise function in preventing damage as well as their more effective treatment. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      14 - Ligament injuries and their management in the hind limbs of dogs
      Ramin Mazaheri-Khameneh Mohammadmahdi Gooran Seyed Siavash Ghoreishi
      Ligament injuries are one of the most common injuries in small animals. These injuries can cause sudden pain, lameness and even weight intolerance. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment greatly increase the likelihood of successful treatment. Chronic injuries usually do Full Text
      Ligament injuries are one of the most common injuries in small animals. These injuries can cause sudden pain, lameness and even weight intolerance. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment greatly increase the likelihood of successful treatment. Chronic injuries usually do not respond well to treatment and weaken the prognosis of treatment. Injury to the cruciate ligaments, followed by damage to the collateral ligaments, is one of the most common injuries to the knee joint. There are many ways to diagnose and confirm these injuries. These include ultrasonography and radiography. Numerous strategies for diagnosing and treating ligament injuries have been presented in previous studies, some of which have been attempted during this study. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      15 - Recent Advanced in Minimally Invasive Surgery; A Review on New Procedures and Instruments
      Mahdieh Katebian Mir Sepehr Pedram Mohammad Yasan Bangash mahbobeh abdi
      Minimally invasive surgeries are one of the most important revolutions in the history of surgery. recently, different methods of this type of surgery are widely used in medicine and veterinary medicine. With recent advances in minimally invasive surgery, a variety of su Full Text
      Minimally invasive surgeries are one of the most important revolutions in the history of surgery. recently, different methods of this type of surgery are widely used in medicine and veterinary medicine. With recent advances in minimally invasive surgery, a variety of surgical methods have been introduced. Laparoscopic gallbladder resection is the most common type of minimally invasive surgery and many other surgeries have been introduced in the same way. This article introduces new methods in minimally invasive surgery. The further use of this type of surgery depends entirely on the development of new technologies in this field. The success of surgical procedures in the treatment of diseases is always measured by the amount of pain and trauma that the surgical method inflicts on the patient. Reducing these two factors has led to the progression and change surgical methods with minimal invasions in general and laparoscopic surgeries particularly in the last century. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      16 - Evaluation of effects of different cannulas and the initial incision size, on skin and underlying tissues in laparoscopic procedures in dog model.
      Mahdieh Katebian Mohamad Hejazi roja ebrahimi jalal rezaie hossein marjanmehr hossein asheq farnaz mahmoodzadegan hesam adin akbarein
      Objective- While many of studies have evaluated effects of trocar on incision characteristics non has taken the design of the cannula into consideration. This study was conducted to figure out the type of cannula design which is associated with a better healing at the i Full Text
      Objective- While many of studies have evaluated effects of trocar on incision characteristics non has taken the design of the cannula into consideration. This study was conducted to figure out the type of cannula design which is associated with a better healing at the insertion site, and to investigate if the size of incision in the port site has an effect on the healing process. Procedure-6 trocars were inserted in each dog. five animals were used, allowing the total number of 10 insertions for 7 mm incisions and threaded cannula (group A), 10 insertions for 10 mm incision and threaded cannula (group B) and 10 for 10 mm incision and smooth cannula (Group C), which constituted 3 groups of study. Results-Macroscopic and Histopathology comparison between group A and group B revealed significantly higher degenerative changes and necrosis in the dermal and muscle layer and a higher loss of the peritoneal lining in group A than B. Hemorrhage in the dermal layer of the skin and acute inflammatory reaction was significantly higher in group B compared with C . Conclusions - This study showed that a smaller incision than the trocar’s external diameter has destructive effects on the tissues. Moreover, using a trocar with a threaded cannula can have harmful effects on the surrounding tissues and it is considered more destructive than a smooth cannula. Manuscript Document