• List of Articles Horse

      • Open Access Article

        1 - An overview of colic in horses
        Hanieh  Fatemi Hesamodin  Torghabeh Alireza  Kavehaski
        Colic or abdominal pain has long been one of the most important and challenging diseases that veterinarians in equine medicine have always dealt with. In colic, the choice of treatment method between medical and surgical has always been discussed. According to the findi Full Text
        Colic or abdominal pain has long been one of the most important and challenging diseases that veterinarians in equine medicine have always dealt with. In colic, the choice of treatment method between medical and surgical has always been discussed. According to the findings of physical examinations such as pain, cardiovascular system, anal examination and other clinical and laboratory methods, the type of treatment method is selected and if necessary, by using appropriate techniques in cases that require surgery, the patient recovers. Finally, attention to the care required after this period is also one of the effective measures in the treatment of colic in horses. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - An overview of the management of mild colic
        Fattah  Iranmanesh Fatemeh  Heydari Ehsanollah Sakhaee Reza Nikzad
        Colic is one of the most important problems affecting horses and affects 4 to 10% of horses annually. It is noteworthy that 80% of colic cases are either gaseous or of unknown origin that improve without treatment or with a simple treatment. Usually, about 5% of horses Full Text
        Colic is one of the most important problems affecting horses and affects 4 to 10% of horses annually. It is noteworthy that 80% of colic cases are either gaseous or of unknown origin that improve without treatment or with a simple treatment. Usually, about 5% of horses develop mild colon accumulation in a mild form and respond to treatment, and less than 7% of colic cases require surgery. Horses that show mild colic symptoms have a better prognosis for survival, and ultimately in 13% of cases there is a chance of recurrence of symptoms. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Principles of oral and injectable fluid therapy in equine colic
        Fattah  Iranmanesh Fatemeh  Heydari Ehsanollah Sakhaee
        Fluid therapy is one of the most important parts of the treatment protocol for horses with colic. Fluid therapy methods include oral and intravenous administration. Although intravenous fluid intake is the most basic form of fluid therapy in horses with colic, prudent u Full Text
        Fluid therapy is one of the most important parts of the treatment protocol for horses with colic. Fluid therapy methods include oral and intravenous administration. Although intravenous fluid intake is the most basic form of fluid therapy in horses with colic, prudent use of oral fluid therapy can be used as an adjunct or alternative treatment. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Anesthetic management differences between small animal and horse
        Nasser Vesal
        Veterinary anesthesia is a relatively new science that uses different drugs and techniques to provide optimal condition (analgesia, immobility, muscle relaxation and amnesia) to perform various medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures in domestic, exotic and wild ani Full Text
        Veterinary anesthesia is a relatively new science that uses different drugs and techniques to provide optimal condition (analgesia, immobility, muscle relaxation and amnesia) to perform various medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures in domestic, exotic and wild animals. In order to perform a safe sedation, analgesia, local and general anesthesia, adequate scientific knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the species are required. The most common species that referred for surgical procedures are small animal (cat and dog) and horses. Although surgical procedure are also performed on ruminants, general anesthesia is not common in these species due to some specific reasons (economic costs, bloat, regurgitation and easily performed standing surgeries in cattle). There are several anatomical, physiological and pharmacological differences as well as difference in body weight and temperament between small animal and horses that should be considered before anesthesia. The present paper discusses the major differences that require appropriate preoperative preparation when conducting anesthesia in small animal and horses. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Inflammation and arcing (BOWED TENDON) of the superficial flexor tendon (SDF)
        Saeed Azizi Mahmoodjigh Nima Mozafari Farshid Davoudi
        Among the flexor tendons in the horse's limbs, the superficial digital flexor tendon is more prone to damage than the deep digital flexor tendon. SDF tendonitis is a common injury in event horses. Recovery of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries is slow, bu Full Text
        Among the flexor tendons in the horse's limbs, the superficial digital flexor tendon is more prone to damage than the deep digital flexor tendon. SDF tendonitis is a common injury in event horses. Recovery of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries is slow, but re-injury is likely. SDF tendon injuries are more common in the forelimb. Flexor tendon injuries are due to strain on the tendon or a direct trauma. Tendon damage vary from inflammation and pain to complete rupture of the tendon. Injuries caused by strain are associated with swelling that require ultrasound assessment to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for these injuries includes anti-inflammatory treatment, which is initially followed by a rehabilitation program. In cases where drug treatment is not responsive, surgical procedures including tendon splitting and superior check ligament desmotomy can be used. In this study, we briefly review the tendonitis of the superficial digital flexor tendon, etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Horse limb ligaments, injuries and its treatment
        Rahim Mohammadi Farshid Davoodi
        Disorders and problems of the ligaments of the motor limbs of horse are among the things that severely affect the performance of the horse and cause lameness. Early diagnosis, management and treatment measures will improve the prognosis of treatment. Damage to the ligam Full Text
        Disorders and problems of the ligaments of the motor limbs of horse are among the things that severely affect the performance of the horse and cause lameness. Early diagnosis, management and treatment measures will improve the prognosis of treatment. Damage to the ligaments of the suspensory apparatus, which includes the suspensory ligament and distal sesamoidean ligaments, is one of the most important ligament injuries of the fore and hind limbs. Despite advances in horse care, ligament injuries continue to occur. In this paper, we review the types of ligament problems in the limbs, etiology, clinical signs, examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - A review of the most common tendon sheath injuries in horses
        Rahim Mohammadi Nima Mozafari
        Tendon sheath is a connective tissue that main function is to protect the tendon in the areas that are most vulnerable to damage. One of the relatively common causes of lameness and abnormalities in the limb of horses is tendon sheath damage. Injuries to the digital ten Full Text
        Tendon sheath is a connective tissue that main function is to protect the tendon in the areas that are most vulnerable to damage. One of the relatively common causes of lameness and abnormalities in the limb of horses is tendon sheath damage. Injuries to the digital tendon sheath, tarsus, and carp are more common than tendon sheaths in other parts of the limbs. Lameness and swelling at the site of the lesion are common clinical findings in many tendon sheath injuries. Primary diagnosis of tendon sheath inflammation is possible with the help of animal history and clinical signs. The use of diagnostic tools, especially diagnostic imaging, is very useful for definitive diagnosis and identifying the primary cause of the disorders or damage to the surrounding tissues. Complete treatment should be done after identifying the underlying cause of sheath inflammation, although treatments such as rest, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, and cold therapy are effective in reducing inflammation and improving clinical signs. Manuscript Document