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        1 - Overview of colic risk factors in horses
        Fattah  Iranmanesh Seyed Mahmoud  Shojaeian Amirsaeed  Samimi
        Gastrointestinal diseases are 50% of the problems and diseases that lead to death in adult horses. According to epidemiological studies, for every 100 horses per year, between 0.9 and 10 horses suffer from colic. The occurrence of colic varies between different farms an Full Text
        Gastrointestinal diseases are 50% of the problems and diseases that lead to death in adult horses. According to epidemiological studies, for every 100 horses per year, between 0.9 and 10 horses suffer from colic. The occurrence of colic varies between different farms and even at different times in one farm. The occurrence of colic seems to be strongly influenced by the level of quality of herd management and horse maintenance throughout the year. This means that variation in the rate of occurrence originates more from management than from the breed of horses. Various factors such as breed, age, sex, history, nutrition, activities, infectious and parasitic problems and dental problems can increase the risk of colic in horses. For example, Arabian horses have been identified as predisposed to colic, and other Heidegger breeds such as the Thoroughbred and Warmblad, and standard-range horses, are at high risk for colic. In addition, stallions, especially castrated stallions, are more susceptible to colic. Changes in the type of concentrate consumed, the type of other feeds, the quality of forage and pasture are closely related to colic and their causative agents. Intestinal parasites, especially tapeworms and streptococci, are important risk factors for colic that can increase the risk Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - An overview of the management of mild colic
        Fattah  Iranmanesh Fatemeh  Heydari Ehsanollah Sakhaee Reza Nikzad
        Colic is one of the most important problems affecting horses and affects 4 to 10% of horses annually. It is noteworthy that 80% of colic cases are either gaseous or of unknown origin that improve without treatment or with a simple treatment. Usually, about 5% of horses Full Text
        Colic is one of the most important problems affecting horses and affects 4 to 10% of horses annually. It is noteworthy that 80% of colic cases are either gaseous or of unknown origin that improve without treatment or with a simple treatment. Usually, about 5% of horses develop mild colon accumulation in a mild form and respond to treatment, and less than 7% of colic cases require surgery. Horses that show mild colic symptoms have a better prognosis for survival, and ultimately in 13% of cases there is a chance of recurrence of symptoms. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Principles of oral and injectable fluid therapy in equine colic
        Fattah  Iranmanesh Fatemeh  Heydari Ehsanollah Sakhaee
        Fluid therapy is one of the most important parts of the treatment protocol for horses with colic. Fluid therapy methods include oral and intravenous administration. Although intravenous fluid intake is the most basic form of fluid therapy in horses with colic, prudent u Full Text
        Fluid therapy is one of the most important parts of the treatment protocol for horses with colic. Fluid therapy methods include oral and intravenous administration. Although intravenous fluid intake is the most basic form of fluid therapy in horses with colic, prudent use of oral fluid therapy can be used as an adjunct or alternative treatment. Manuscript Document