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        1 - Overview of colic risk factors in horses
        Fattah  Iranmanesh Seyed Mahmoud  Shojaeian Amirsaeed  Samimi
        Gastrointestinal diseases are 50% of the problems and diseases that lead to death in adult horses. According to epidemiological studies, for every 100 horses per year, between 0.9 and 10 horses suffer from colic. The occurrence of colic varies between different farms an Full Text
        Gastrointestinal diseases are 50% of the problems and diseases that lead to death in adult horses. According to epidemiological studies, for every 100 horses per year, between 0.9 and 10 horses suffer from colic. The occurrence of colic varies between different farms and even at different times in one farm. The occurrence of colic seems to be strongly influenced by the level of quality of herd management and horse maintenance throughout the year. This means that variation in the rate of occurrence originates more from management than from the breed of horses. Various factors such as breed, age, sex, history, nutrition, activities, infectious and parasitic problems and dental problems can increase the risk of colic in horses. For example, Arabian horses have been identified as predisposed to colic, and other Heidegger breeds such as the Thoroughbred and Warmblad, and standard-range horses, are at high risk for colic. In addition, stallions, especially castrated stallions, are more susceptible to colic. Changes in the type of concentrate consumed, the type of other feeds, the quality of forage and pasture are closely related to colic and their causative agents. Intestinal parasites, especially tapeworms and streptococci, are important risk factors for colic that can increase the risk Manuscript Document